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"The Meat of the Word" Series

The Covenants of Promise

A Survey of the Agreements Yahuwah Has Made With His People

By David M Rogers

www.BibleTruth.cc

Published: June 2016

Table of Contents

Definition of a Covenant

The Sabbath

 


Covenants

The Sabbath as a Sign

Say to the sons of Yisrael, You must observe my Sabbaths. This will be a sign between me and you for the generations to come, so you may know that I am Yahuwah, who makes you holy.

Observe the Sabbath, because it is holy to you. Anyone who desecrates it must be put to death; whoever does any work on that day must be cut off from his people.

For six days, work is to be done, but the seventh day is a Sabbath of rest, holy to Yahuwah. Whoever does any work on the Sabbath day must be put to death.

 (Exodus 31:13-15)

The Sabbath as Covenant

The sons of Yisrael are to guard the Sabbath, to do the Sabbath for the generations to come as a lasting covenant.

It will be a sign between me and the sons of Yisrael forever, for in six days Yahuwah made the heavens and the earth, and on the seventh day he ceased and refreshed himself. (Exodus 31:16-17)

The Promises Attached to The Sabbath

Blessed is the man who does this, the man who holds it fast, who keeps the Sabbath without desecrating it, and keeps his hand from doing any evil."

Let no foreigner who has bound himself to Yahuwah say, "Yahuwah will surely exclude me from his people." And let not any eunuch complain, "I am only a dry tree."

For this is what Yahuwah says: "To the eunuchs who keep my Sabbaths, who choose what pleases me and hold fast to my covenant--

(Isaiah 56:2-7)

The Promise of the Sabbath

to them I will give within my temple and its walls a memorial and a name better than sons and daughters; I will give them an everlasting name that will not be cut off.

And foreigners who bind themselves to Yahuwah to serve him, to love the name of Yahuwah, and to worship him, all who keep the Sabbath without desecrating it and who hold fast to my covenant-

these I will bring to my holy mountain and give them joy in my house of prayer. Their burnt offerings and sacrifices will be accepted on my altar; for my house will be called a house of prayer for all nations.“ (Isaiah 56:5-7)

The Sabbath Covenant

"If you keep your feet from breaking the Sabbath and from doing as you please on my holy day, if you call the Sabbath a delight (oneg) and Yahuwah's holy day honorable, and if you honor it by not going your own way and not doing as you please or speaking idle words,

then you will find your joy (oneg) in Yahuwah, and I will cause you to ride on the heights of the land and to feast on the inheritance of your father Ya'acov." The mouth of Yahuwah has spoken. (Isaiah 58:13-14)

The Sabbath

A Creation Institution

An Everlasting Covenant

A Sign

The Covenants of the Promise

Therefore, remember that formerly you who are Gentiles by birth and called "uncircumcised" by those who call themselves "the circumcision" (that done in the body by the hands of men)--

remember that at that time you were separate from Messiah, excluded from citizenship in Yisrael and foreigners to the covenants of the promise, without hope and without Elohim in the world. (Ephesians 2:11-12

Definition of “Covenant”

tyrIB. (berith) - agreement, covenant, to come to an agreement, to accept someone into a formal arrangement, pact, compact, alliance, treaty, contract, a formal and legally binding agreement

Understanding the Difference Between Covenant, Promise and Law

Covenant – an agreement between 2 parties

Promise – something guaranteed either conditionally or unconditionally

Law – a standard of rule concerning behavior

Purposes for Covenants

Establish conditions and expectations for business or personal relationship

Biblical - Reveal details on how Yah will bring about the fulfillment of his promises

The Covenants Yahuwah makes with his people are designed to establish relationship between Him and them based upon proper respect for who He is.

These agreements are the legal basis for determining the rights of each party.

The Biblical Covenants have Signs

The rainbow – Gen 9:13

The circumcision Gen 17:11

The Sabbath – Ex 31:16-17

Spiritual gifts – Acts 2

Covenant with Abraham

“Leave your country, your people and your father's household and go to the land I will show you.

I will make you into a great nation and I will bless you; I will make your name great, and you will be a blessing.

I will bless those who bless you, and whoever curses you I will curse; and all peoples on earth will be blessed through you.” (Genesis 12:1-3)

A Promise to Abraham

Avram traveled through the land as far as the site of the great tree of Moreh at Shechem. At that time the Canaanites were in the land.

Yahuwah appeared to Avram and said, "To your offspring I will give this land." So he built an altar there to Yahuwah, who had appeared to him. (Genesis 12:6-7)

Promise of a Seed (singular or plural?) and a Land

Yahuwah said to Avram after Lot had parted from him, "Lift up your eyes from where you are and look north and south, east and west.

All the land that you see I will give to you and your offspring (singular) forever.

I will make your offspring (singular) like the dust of the earth, so that if anyone could count the dust, then your offspring could be counted.

Go, walk through the length and breadth of the land, for I am giving it to you.“ – (Genesis 13:14-17)

Dual Fulfillment of Prophecy (plural)

Yahuwah your Elohim has increased your numbers so that today you are as many as the stars in the sky (Deuteronomy 1:10)

Your forefathers who went down into Mitzrayim were seventy in all, and now Yahuwah your Elohim has made you as numerous as the stars in the sky. (Deuteronomy 10:22)

The Singular is Significant

Brothers, let me take an example from everyday life. Just as no one can set aside or add to a human covenant that has been duly established, so it is in this case.

The promises were spoken to Avraham and to his seed. The Scripture does not say "and to seeds," meaning many people, but "and to your seed," meaning one person, who is Messiah. (Galatians 3:15-16)

The Seed Promise is Also a Plural Seed

Understand, then, that those who believe are children (seed) of Avraham. The Scripture foresaw that Elohim would justify the Gentiles by faith, and announced the gospel in advance to Avraham: "All nations will be blessed through you.“ (Galatians 3:7-8)

If you belong to Messiah, then you are Avraham's seed, and heirs according to the promise. (Galatians 3:29)

Covenant with Abraham

Who is to be Avraham’s heir?

On that day Yahuwah made a covenant with Avram and said, "To your seed I give this land, from the river of Mitzrayim to the great river, the Euphrates” – (Genesis 15:18)

Covenant of Circumcision

When Avram was ninety-nine years old, Yahuwah appeared to him and said, "I am Elohim Almighty; walk before me and be blameless.

I will confirm my covenant between me and you and will greatly increase your numbers."

Avram fell facedown, and Elohim said to him,

"As for me, this is my covenant with you: You will be the father of many nations.” (Genesis 17:1-4)

Has the Covenant of Circumcision Ended?

Understand, then, that those who believe are children of Avraham.

The Scripture foresaw that Elohim would justify the Gentiles by faith, and announced the gospel in advance to Avraham: "All nations will be blessed through you."

So those who have faith are blessed along with Avraham, the man of faith. (Galatians 3:7-9)

Covenant with Isaac – Narrowing Down the Promise

Then Elohim said, "Yes, but your wife Sarah will bear you a son, and you will call him Yitzchak. I will establish my covenant with him as an everlasting covenant for his descendants after him.

And as for Ishmael, I have heard you: I will surely bless him; I will make him fruitful and will greatly increase his numbers. He will be the father of twelve rulers, and I will make him into a great nation.

But my covenant I will establish with Yitzchak, whom Sarah will bear to you by this time next year.“ (Genesis 17:19-21)

Promises Given to Ya’acov

Ya'acov left Beersheba and set out for Haran.

When he reached a certain place, he stopped for the night because the sun had set. Taking one of the stones there, he put it under his head and lay down to sleep.

He had a dream in which he saw a stairway resting on the earth, with its top reaching to heaven, and the angels of Elohim were ascending and descending on it. (Genesis 28:10-12)

There above it stood Yahuwah, and he said: "I am Yahuwah, the Elohim of your father Avraham and the Elohim of Yitzchak. I will give you and your descendants the land on which you are lying.

Your descendants will be like the dust of the earth, and you will spread out to the west and to the east, to the north and to the south. All peoples on earth will be blessed through you and your offspring.

I am with you and will watch over you wherever you go, and I will bring you back to this land. I will not leave you until I have done what I have promised you.“ (Genesis 28:13-15)

Covenant with Jacob

Elohim heard their groaning and he remembered his covenant with Avraham, with Yitzchak and with Ya'acov. (Exodus 2:24)

What is the Promise?

Blessing (honor, respect)

A seed

An inheritance of land

The protection of Yahuwah

In a word: “I will be your Elohim and you will be my people”

Covenant with Israel the Nation

In the third month after the sons of Yisrael left Mitzrayim-- on the very day-- they came to the Desert of Sinai.

After they set out from Rephidim, they entered the Desert of Sinai, and Yisrael camped there in the desert in front of the mountain.

Then Mosheh went up to Elohim, and Yahuwah called to him from the mountain and said, "This is what you are to say to the house of Ya'acov and what you are to tell the people of Yisrael: (Exodus 19:1-3)

What Part Does Obedience Play?

'You yourselves have seen what I did to Mitzrayim, and how I carried you on eagles' wings and brought you to myself.

Now if you obey me fully and keep my covenant, then out of all nations you will be my treasured possession. Although the whole earth is mine,

you will be for me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.' These are the words you are to speak to the sons of Yisrael.“ (Exodus 19:4-6)

                                                                                                                                                               

The Voice of Elohim Spoke to the People

The Ten Words (Laws – chukot) – Ex 20:1-17

A Few more laws – Ex 20:18-26

The Right Rulings (mishpatim) –Ex 21-23

Mosheh Tells the People These Laws – Ex 24:3-4 - When Mosheh went and told the people all Yahuwah's words and laws, they responded with one voice, "Everything Yahuwah has said we will do." Mosheh then wrote down everything Yahuwah had said.

Covenant with David

You said, "I have made a covenant with my chosen one, I have sworn to David my servant,

'I will establish your line forever and make your throne firm through all generations.'" Selah (Psalm 89:3-4)

The Davidic Covenant

Once you spoke in a vision, to your faithful people you said: "I have bestowed strength on a warrior; I have exalted a young man from among the people.

I have found David my servant; with my set apart oil I have anointed him.

My hand will sustain him; surely my arm will strengthen him.

No enemy will subject him to tribute; no wicked man will oppress him.

I will crush his foes before him and strike down his adversaries. (Psalm 89:19-23)

My faithful love will be with him, and through my name his horn will be exalted.

I will set his hand over the sea, his right hand over the rivers.

He will call out to me, 'You are my Father, my Elohim, the Rock my Savior.'

I will also appoint him my firstborn, the most exalted of the kings of the earth.

I will maintain my love to him forever, and my covenant with him will never fail.

I will establish his line forever, his throne as long as the heavens endure. (Psalm 89:24-29)

S

"If his sons forsake my law and do not follow my statutes,

if they violate my decrees and fail to keep my commands,

I will punish their sin with the rod, their iniquity with flogging;

but I will not take my love from him, nor will I ever betray my faithfulness.

I will not violate my covenant or alter what my lips have uttered. (Psalm 89:30-34)

An Unconditional Promise

Once for all, I have sworn by my holiness-- and I will not lie to David--

that his line will continue forever and his throne endure before me like the sun;

it will be established forever like the moon, the faithful witness in the sky." Selah (Psalm 89:35-37)

A Promised New Covenant

"Indeed, a time is coming," says Yahuwah, "when I will make a new agreement with the people of Yisrael and Yehudah.  It will not be like the old agreement that I made with their ancestors when I took them by the hand and led them out of Egypt. For they violated that agreement, even though I was a faithful husband to them," says Yahuwah.  "But I will make a new agreement with the whole nation of Yisrael after I plant them back in the land," says Yahuwah. "I will put my Instruction within them and write it on their hearts and minds. And I will be their Elohim and they will be my people. (Yirmyahu 31:31-34)

The Covenant in Yeshua’s Blood

This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins. (Matthew 26:28)

Is Obedience Required Under the New Covenant?

Yahuwah your Elohim will raise up for you a prophet like me from among your own brothers. You must listen to him.

For this is what you asked of Yahuwah your Elohim at Horeb on the day of the assembly when you said, "Let us not hear the voice of Yahuwah our Elohim nor see this great fire anymore, or we will die."

Yahuwah said to me: "What they say is good.

I will raise up for them a prophet like you from among their brothers; I will put my words in his mouth, and he will tell them everything I command him.

If anyone does not listen to my words that the prophet speaks in my name, I myself will call him to account. (Deuteronomy 18:15-19)

Under the New Covenant, Is Compliance with his Commandments Necessary?

Once you were alienated from Elohim and were enemies in your minds because of your evil behavior.

But now he has reconciled you by Messiah's physical body through death to present you holy in his sight, without blemish and free from accusation--

if you continue in your faith, established and firm, not moved from the hope held out in the gospel. (Colossians 1:21-23)

Eternal Salvation Comes to Those Who Obey

During the days of Yahusha's life on earth, he offered up prayers and petitions with loud cries and tears to the one who could save him from death, and he was heard because of his reverent submission. Although he was a son, he learned obedience from what he suffered and, once made perfect, he became the source of eternal salvation for all who obey him and was designated by Elohim to be high priest in the order of Melchizedek.

(Hebrews 5:7-10)

Obedience Under the New Covenant

I will give them one heart and I will put a new Spirit within them; I will remove the heart of stone from their bodies and I will give them a heart of flesh, so that they may obey my rules (Hebrew, "chukot") and keep my right-rulings (Hebrew, "mishpatim") and observe them. Then they will be my people, and I will be their Elohim. (Yechezqel 11:19-20).

"'I will take you from the nations and gather you from all the countries; then I will bring you to your land.  I will sprinkle you with pure water and you will be clean from all your impurities. I will purify you from all your idols.  I will give you a new heart, and I will put a new spirit within you. I will remove the heart of stone from your body and give you a heart of flesh.  I will put my Spirit within you; I will cause you to walk in my rules (Hebrew, "chukot") and carefully observe my right-rulings (Hebrew, "mishpatim").  Then you will live in the land I gave to your fathers; you will be my people, and I will be your Elohim.  I will save you from all your uncleanness (Yechezqel 36:24-29).

A “New” or a “Renewed” Covenant?

Same: Torah, Requirement to Keep Torah – all the laws and right-rulings of Yahuwah

Different: The blood that ratifies it, written on our hearts

End Result: Same – Yahuwah will be our Elohim and we will be His people.

Ephesians 1:9-10

And he made known to us the mystery of his will according to his good pleasure, which he purposed in Messiah,

to be put into effect when the times will have reached their fulfillment-- to bring all things in heaven and on earth together under one head, even Messiah.

The Covenants of the Promise

Therefore, remember that formerly you who are Gentiles by birth and called "uncircumcised" by those who call themselves "the circumcision" (that done in the body by the hands of men)--

remember that at that time you were separate from Messiah, excluded from citizenship in Yisrael and foreigners to the covenants of the promise, without hope and without Elohim in the world. (Ephesians 2:11-12)

No Second Class Citizens Here

Consequently, you are no longer foreigners and aliens, but fellow citizens with Elohim's people and members of Elohim's household,

built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, with Messiah Yahusha himself as the chief cornerstone.

In him the whole building is joined together and rises to become a holy temple in Yahuwah.

And in him you too are being built together to become a dwelling in which Elohim lives by his Spirit. (Ephesians 2:19-22)

The Mystery of the Gospel

In reading this, then, you will be able to understand my insight into the mystery of Messiah,

which was not made known to men in other generations as it has now been revealed by the Spirit to Elohim's holy apostles and prophets.

This mystery is that through the gospel the Gentiles are heirs together with Yisrael, members together of one body, and sharers together in the promise in Messiah Yahusha. (Ephesians 3:4-6)

The Covenants of Promise Tell of Abba’s Redemption

The promises made to Avraham will be fulfilled in Yeshua in the Messianic Age

These were all commended for their faith, yet none of them received what had been promised. Elohim had planned something better for us so that only together with us would they be made perfect. (Hebrews 11:39-40)

The Covenants of Promise Provide the Legal Parameters for Relationship with the Living Elohim

These parameters are in the form of laws and right-rulings

We keep the covenant by obeying the laws

Ultimately, we are judged by our works

 

Comparisons Between the Sinai Covenant and the New Covenant

 

 

Ivrim 9 – The Former Covenant

 16 For where there is a will, the death of the one who made it must be proven.

 17 For a will takes effect only at death, since it carries no force while the one who made it is alive.

 18 So even the first covenant was inaugurated with blood.

 19 For when Mosheh had spoken every command to all the people according to the Instruction, he took the blood of calves and goats with water and scarlet wool and hyssop and sprinkled both the book itself and all the people,

 20 and said, "This is the blood of the covenant that Elohim has commanded you to keep."

 21 And both the tabernacle and all the utensils of worship he likewise sprinkled with blood.

 22 Indeed according to the Instruction almost everything was purified with blood, and without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness.

A Covenant

Covenant: an agreement between 2 parties

There are essentially two elements to every covenant

•Content:  the terms of the covenant – what each party “gets” and what each gives to the other

•Guarantee: that thing which binds the parties to the agreement – in some cases, this constitutes only a “pledge” – something given to the other to show good faith

 

The Content of the Former Covenant

Terms and Benefits

Terms:  Shemot 19:5 And now, if you will diligently obey me and keep my covenant,

Benefits:  then you will be my special possession out of all the nations, for all the earth is mine.  6 And you will be my kingdom of priests and a set-apart nation.'

Where did the Former Covenant Fail?

Ivrim 8:7 For if that first one had been faultless, he would not have looked for a second place.

 8 But finding them to blame, He says, "Look, the days are coming, says Yahuwah, when I will complete a new agreement with the house of Yisrael and with the house of Yehudah.

 9 "It will not be like the agreement that I made with their fathers, on the day when I took them by the hand to lead them out of Egypt, because they did not continue in my agreement and I had no regard for them, says Yahuwah.

The people were to blame:  (1) the priests died and could not continue offering sacrifices for sins, and (2) the people did not continue following the terms (obeying the commands)

 

 

The Content of the Former Covenant

Terms and Benefits

Terms:  Shemot 19:5 And now, if you will diligently obey me and keep my covenant,

Benefits:  then you will be my special possession out of all the nations, for all the earth is mine.  6 And you will be my kingdom of priests and a set-apart nation.'

 

The Content of the Renewed Covenant

Terms and Benefits

Terms: I will put my Instruction within them and write it on their hearts and minds.

Benefits:  And I will be their Elohim and they will be my people.

 

The Guarantee of the Renewed Covenant

Ivrim 7:19 On the other hand a better hope is introduced, through which we draw near to Elohim.

 20 And since this was not done without a sworn affirmation--for the others have become priests without a sworn affirmation,

 21 but Yahusha did so with a sworn affirmation by the one who said to him, “Yahuwah has sworn and will not change his mind, 'You are a priest forever'"--

 22 accordingly Yahusha has become the guarantee of a better covenant.

 23 And the others who became priests were numerous, because death prevented them from continuing in office,

 24 but he holds his priesthood permanently since he lives forever.

 25 So he is able to save completely those who come to Elohim through him, because he always lives to intercede for them.

The First Shavuot

Happened at Sinai

Yah enacts the Covenant

            1. He delivers the Torah

            2. He promises them life, protection, to be his treasure

            3. They promise to obey

            4. Blood shed

Yah provides for forgiveness

            1. Levitical priesthood established

 

The Later Shavuot

Happens in Yerushalayim

Yah enacts the Covenant

            1. He delivers the Ruach HaKodesh to be Torah on our hearts

            2. He promises them life, protection, to be his treasure

            3. Messiah’s blood was shed

Yah provides for forgiveness

            1. Yahusha’s priesthood established after the order of Melchi Tsedeck